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    Scientists revive brain function in dead pigs

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    17/04/2019
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    For its health and yours, keep the cat indoors

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    17/04/2019
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    Global measles cases up 300 percent year-on-year: WHO

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    15/04/2019
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    'First' 3D print of heart with human tissue, vessels unveiled

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    12/04/2019
  
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Ressources de la planète: l'humanité vivra à crédit à partir de lundi


2016-08-03
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L'humanité auraaura consomméconsommé lundilundi lala totalitétotalité desdes ressourcesressources queque lala planèteplanète peutpeut renouvelerrenouveler enen unun anan etet vivravivra doncdonc crédit"crédit" jusqu'au 31 décembre,décembre, aa calculécalculé l'ONGl'ONG GlobalGlobal Footprint Network, relevantrelevant queque cece momentmoment survientsurvient dede plusplus enen plusplus tôttôt chaquechaque année.année.

LeLe lundilundi 8 aoûtaoût marquemarque pourpour lala TerreTerre lele "jour"jour dudu dépassement"dépassement" ("earth overshoot day" enen anglais).anglais). AA partirpartir dede cettecette date,date, "nous"nous vivonsvivons doncdonc àà crédit",crédit", écriventécrivent GlobalGlobal Footprint etet lele WWF dansdans unun communiqué.communiqué.

PourPour sesses calculs,calculs, GlobalGlobal Footprint prendprend notammentnotamment enen comptecompte l'empreinte carbone,carbone, lesles ressourcesressources consomméesconsommées pourpour lala pêche,pêche, l'élevage, lesles cultures,cultures, lala constructionconstruction etet l'utilisation d'eau.

EnEn 2015, lele "jour"jour dudu dépassement"dépassement" étaitétait survenusurvenu lele 13 août.août. LaLa datedate "avance"avance inexorablementinexorablement depuisdepuis lesles annéesannées 1970", relèventrelèvent lesles ONG.

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EnEn 1970, ilil n'était survenusurvenu queque lele 23 décembre.décembre. Depuis,Depuis, sasa datedate n'an'a cessécessé d'avancer: 3 novembrenovembre enen 1980, 13 octobreoctobre enen 1990, 4 octobreoctobre enen 2000, 3 septembre enen 2005, 28 aoûtaoût enen 2010.

"Pour"Pour subvenirsubvenir àà nosnos besoins,besoins, nousnous avonsavons aujourd'hui besoinbesoin dede l’équivalent dede 1,6 planète"planète" parpar an,an, relèventrelèvent GlobalGlobal Footprint etet WWF.

"Le"Le coûtcoût dede cettecette surconsommationsurconsommation estest déjàdéjà visible: pénuriespénuries d'eau, désertification, érosionérosion desdes sols,sols, chutechute dede lala productivitéproductivité agricoleagricole etet desdes stocksstocks dede poissons,poissons, déforestation,déforestation, disparitiondisparition desdes espèces",espèces", déplorentdéplorent lesles ONG.

"Vivre"Vivre àà créditcrédit nene peutpeut êtreêtre queque provisoireprovisoire parce queque lala naturenature n'est paspas unun gisementgisement dansdans lequellequel nousnous pouvonspouvons puiserpuiser indéfiniment",indéfiniment", soulignent-elles.

LesLes émissionsémissions dede CO2, lele principalprincipal gazgaz àà effeteffet dede serre, sontsont lele plusplus importantimportant facteurfacteur dede dépassement: elleselles représententreprésentent "60% dede notrenotre empreinteempreinte écologiqueécologique globale",globale", précisentprécisent lele WWF etet GlobalGlobal Footprint.

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SelonSelon lele rapportrapport annuelannuel sursur l'état dudu climatclimat ("State of thethe Climate"), unun documentdocument rendurendu publicpublic mardimardi auquelauquel ontont participéparticipé 450 scientifiquesscientifiques dudu mondemonde entier,entier, lesles émissionsémissions dede gazgaz àà effeteffet dede serre ontont atteintatteint desdes niveauxniveaux recordsrecords enen 2015.

LaLa communautécommunauté internationaleinternationale s'est engagéeengagée àà lala ConférenceConférence dede ParisParis sursur lele climat,climat, enen décembredécembre dernier,dernier, àà réduireréduire lesles émissionsémissions dede gazgaz àà effeteffet dede serre afinafin dede jugulerjuguler lele réchauffementréchauffement climatique.climatique.

D'après GlobalGlobal Footprint, enen 2030, si lesles émissionsémissions mondialesmondiales dede CO2 nene diminuentdiminuent pas,pas, l'humanité auraaura engloutienglouti sonson "budget"budget écologique"écologique" dèsdès lele 28 juin.juin.

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Scientists revive brain function in dead pigs


2019-04-17
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ScientistsScientists havehave managedmanaged toto restorerestore cellcell functionfunction inin thethe brainsbrains ofof pigspigs hourshours afterafter theythey died,died, inin aa breakthroughbreakthrough WednesdayWednesday thatthat expertsexperts saidsaid threwthrew intointo questionquestion thethe veryvery notionnotion ofof whatwhat makesmakes animalsanimals -- oror eveneven humanshumans -- alive.alive.

AuthorsAuthors ofof thethe US-based studystudy saidsaid theirtheir researchresearch couldcould oneone dayday bebe usedused toto helphelp treattreat victimsvictims ofof heartheart attacksattacks andand strokesstrokes andand unravelunravel thethe mysteriesmysteries ofof brainbrain trauma.trauma.

InIn humanhuman andand largelarge mammalmammal brains,brains, cellscells crucialcrucial forfor neuralneural functionfunction beginbegin toto degradedegrade asas soonsoon asas bloodblood supplysupply isis cutcut -- aa processprocess longlong consideredconsidered toto bebe irreversible.irreversible.

ButBut thethe findingsfindings ofof thethe trial,trial, publishedpublished inin thethe journaljournal Nature,Nature, showshow thatthat thethe brainsbrains ofof pigspigs cancan havehave theirtheir bloodblood flowflow andand cellcell functionfunction restoredrestored eveneven hourshours afterafter death.death.

TheThe teamteam fromfrom thethe NIH BRAINBRAIN initiative,initiative, aa federally fundedfunded USUS researchresearch programme,programme, usedused thethe brainsbrains ofof 32 pigspigs thatthat hadhad beenbeen slaughteredslaughtered forfor foodfood andand discarded,discarded, withoutwithout bloodblood oror glucoseglucose flow,flow, forfor fourfour hourshours each.each.

Then,Then, usingusing aa tissuetissue supportsupport systemsystem thatthat pumpspumps aa liquidliquid designeddesigned toto mimicmimic bloodblood throughthrough organs,organs, theythey rehydrated thethe brainsbrains forfor aa furtherfurther sixsix hours.hours.

SomeSome brainsbrains receivedreceived thethe patentedpatented life-support solutionsolution andand othersothers werewere givengiven aa controlcontrol substance.substance.

- FlickersFlickers ofof lifelife -

TheThe resultsresults werewere astonishing: thethe brainsbrains thatthat receivedreceived thethe artificialartificial bloodblood hadhad basicbasic cellcell functionfunction restored.restored. TheirTheir bloodblood vesselvessel structurestructure waswas revived,revived, andand thethe teamteam eveneven observedobserved somesome localised processesprocesses -- includingincluding inin synapsessynapses andand immuneimmune responsesresponses -- flickeringflickering backback toto life.life.

ThoseThose thatthat receivedreceived thethe controlcontrol solutionsolution turnedturned withinwithin hourshours toto whatwhat researchersresearchers describeddescribed asas "something"something aa bitbit likelike yoghurt".yoghurt".

"I"I waswas tremendously surprised,"surprised," Nenad Sestan, aa researcher atat Yale UniversityUniversity andand leadlead studystudy authorauthor toldtold AFP.

"We"We werewere surprisedsurprised howhow wellwell thethe structurestructure waswas preserved.preserved. WeWe foundfound thatthat cellcell deathdeath isis reduced,reduced, whichwhich isis veryvery excitingexciting andand promising.promising.

"The"The mainmain conceptualconceptual findingfinding isis this: cellcell deathdeath inin thethe brainbrain occursoccurs acrossacross aa longerlonger timetime periodperiod thanthan wewe previouslypreviously thought,"thought," Sestan added.added.

TheThe teamteam stressedstressed thatthat theythey sawsaw nono "higher"higher levellevel functionalfunctional activity"activity" suchsuch asas electricelectric signallingsignalling associatedassociated withwith consciousnessconsciousness inin thethe revivedrevived brains.brains.

"That"That isis aa clinicalclinical signsign thatthat thethe brainbrain isis alive,alive, andand wewe nevernever foundfound it,"it," saidsaid Sestan. "This"This isis notnot aa livingliving brain,brain, itit isis aa cellularly activeactive brain."brain."

HadHad anyany suchsuch activityactivity beenbeen detected,detected, thethe teamteam saidsaid theythey wouldwould havehave hadhad toto deliverdeliver anaestheticanaesthetic toto thethe brainsbrains toto nullnull anyany painpain -- despitedespite themthem havinghaving beenbeen deaddead forfor hours.hours.

"If"If somesome activityactivity showsshows upup thatthat indicatedindicated consciousness,consciousness, wewe wouldwould havehave toto stopstop thethe experiment,"experiment," saidsaid Stephen Latham, fromfrom Yale's CentreCentre ofof Bioethics.

"This"This wouldwould bebe unique: inducinginducing consciousnessconsciousness inin anan organorgan that'sthat's notnot connectedconnected toto anyany livingliving being."being."

- 'Not'Not alive,alive, notnot dead'dead' -

TheThe findingsfindings suggestsuggest thatthat scientistsscientists maymay havehave underappreciated thethe brain'sbrain's capacitycapacity forfor self-restoration afterafter aa patientpatient isis declareddeclared brainbrain dead.dead.

ButBut forfor expertsexperts invitedinvited toto commentcomment onon thethe study,study, itit raisedraised deeperdeeper philosophicalphilosophical andand ethicalethical questions.questions.

WritingWriting inin aa linkedlinked editorial,editorial, Nita Farahany, aa professorprofessor ofof lawlaw andand philosophyphilosophy atat DukeDuke University,University, saidsaid thatthat thethe studystudy "throws"throws intointo questionquestion long-standinglong-standing assumptionsassumptions overover whatwhat makesmakes anan animalanimal -- oror aa humanhuman -- alive."alive."

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SheShe saidsaid researchersresearchers hadhad inadvertently createdcreated anan ethicalethical greygrey areaarea wherewhere thethe pigspigs usedused werewere "not"not alive,alive, butbut notnot completely dead."dead."

Dominic Wilkinson, professorprofessor ofof medicalmedical ethicsethics atat thethe UniversityUniversity ofof Oxford, saidsaid thatthat thethe studystudy couldcould havehave vitalvital implicationsimplications forfor futurefuture brainbrain research.research.

"This"This researchresearch remindsreminds usus thatthat 'death''death' isis lessless anan event,event, andand moremore ofof aa processprocess thatthat occursoccurs overover time,"time," hehe said.said.

"Cells"Cells withinwithin thethe humanhuman organismorganism maymay bebe alivealive forfor somesome periodperiod ofof timetime afterafter thethe humanhuman personperson hashas died."died."

Zvonimir Vrselja, alsoalso atat Yale SchoolSchool ofof Medicine'sMedicine's DepartmentDepartment ofof Neuroscience, saidsaid thethe teamteam plannedplanned toto useuse theirtheir supportsupport systemsystem onon deaddead brainsbrains forfor longerlonger periodsperiods ofof timetime inin orderorder toto seesee howhow thethe cellscells react.react.

"We"We couldcould potentially getget somesome insightinsight intointo howhow thesethese brainsbrains couldcould bebe saved,"saved," hehe toldtold AFP.

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For its health and yours, keep the cat indoors


2019-04-17
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AtAt leastleast oneone runningrunning argumentargument amongamong catcat loverslovers isis nownow over: Whiskers,Whiskers, Lucy andand Tigger areare definitelydefinitely betterbetter offoff stayingstaying indoors,indoors, scientistsscientists reportedreported Wednesday.Wednesday.

PetPet catscats allowedallowed outdoors,outdoors, inin fact,fact, areare nearlynearly threethree timestimes asas likelylikely toto becomebecome infectedinfected withwith pathogenspathogens oror parasitesparasites thanthan thosethose confinedconfined toto quarters,quarters, theythey reportedreported inin thethe RoyalRoyal SocietySociety journaljournal BiologyBiology Letters.Letters.

Two-legged house-mates shouldshould alsoalso taketake notenote becausebecause catscats -- a.k.a.a.k.a. Felis catus -- cancan transmittransmit somesome ofof thosethose diseasesdiseases toto humans,humans, thethe authorsauthors said.said.

Intriguingly, thethe fartherfarther domesticateddomesticated felinesfelines areare fromfrom thethe equator,equator, thethe moremore likelylikely theythey areare toto bebe afflictedafflicted byby somesome kindkind ofof bugbug oror virus,virus, ifif theythey spendspend timetime outdoors.outdoors.

"Each"Each degreedegree inin absoluteabsolute latitudelatitude increasedincreased infectioninfection likelihoodlikelihood byby fourfour percent,"percent," saidsaid leadlead authorauthor Kayleigh Chalkowski, aa researcher atat thethe SchoolSchool ofof ForestryForestry andand WildlifeWildlife SciencesSciences atat AuburnAuburn UniversityUniversity inin Alabama.

"You"You thinkthink ofof tropicaltropical regionsregions asas justjust havinghaving moremore wildlife,wildlife, moremore parasites,"parasites," sheshe toldtold AFP. "But"But itit turnedturned outout thatthat latitudelatitude hadhad thethe oppositeopposite effect."effect."

ToTo settlesettle thethe indoor-vs-outdoor questionquestion onceonce andand forfor all,all, Chalkowski andand colleaguescolleagues combedcombed throughthrough nearlynearly twotwo dozendozen earlierearlier studiesstudies inin whichwhich thethe prevalence ofof oneone oror moremore diseasesdiseases waswas comparedcompared acrossacross interiorinterior andand exteriorexterior environments.environments.

AllAll told,told, thethe newnew studystudy lookedlooked atat 19 differentdifferent catcat pathogenspathogens inin moremore thanthan aa dozendozen countries,countries, includingincluding Spain, Canada, Australia, Switzerland, Germany, Pakistan, Brazil, thethe Netherlands andand St.St. Kitts.

- 'Keep'Keep youryour catcat indoors'indoors' -

"This"This isis thethe firstfirst timetime outdooroutdoor accessaccess asas aa riskrisk factorfactor forfor infectioninfection inin catscats hashas beenbeen quantifiedquantified acrossacross aa widewide rangerange ofof geographic localeslocales andand typestypes ofof pathogens,"pathogens," Chalkowski said.said.

TheThe effectseffects werewere consistentconsistent forfor almostalmost allall ofof thethe diseases,diseases, includingincluding felinefeline roundwormroundworm andand thethe single-cell parasiteparasite thatthat causescauses toxoplasmosis, bothboth ofof whichwhich cancan affectaffect humans.humans.

ThisThis heldheld truetrue regardlessregardless ofof howhow theythey werewere transmittedtransmitted -- whetherwhether fromfrom soil,soil, otherother cats,cats, oror preyprey suchsuch asas micemice andand birds.birds.

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"Basically,"Basically, nono mattermatter wherewhere youyou areare inin thethe world,world, keepingkeeping youryour catcat indoorsindoors isis aa greatgreat wayway toto keepkeep themthem healthyhealthy fromfrom infectiousinfectious diseases,"diseases," Chalkowski saidsaid byby wayway ofof summary.summary.

ThisThis isis especiallyespecially goodgood advice,advice, sheshe added,added, "considering"considering thatthat manymany ofof thethe pathogenspathogens catscats carrycarry cancan actuallyactually bebe spreadspread toto humans".humans".

OtherOther domesticateddomesticated animalsanimals transmittransmit diseasedisease toto theirtheir caretakerscaretakers -- dogs,dogs, forfor examples,examples, spreadspread rabies,rabies, andand cattlecattle carrycarry Cryptosporidium parvum, aa parasiticparasitic diseasedisease thatthat attacksattacks thethe intestinalintestinal tract.tract.

WildWild catscats werewere likelylikely firstfirst drawndrawn toto humanhuman communitiescommunities inin searchsearch ofof rodents,rodents, andand werewere domesticateddomesticated somesome 5,000 yearsyears ago.ago. InIn ancientancient Egypt, theythey werewere associatedassociated withwith godsgods andand prominently featuredfeatured inin hieroglyphics.hieroglyphics.

ThereThere areare somesome 90 millionmillion petpet catscats inin thethe UnitedUnited States,States, andand anan estimatedestimated 500 millionmillion worldwide.worldwide.

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Global measles cases up 300 percent year-on-year: WHO


2019-04-15
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MeaslesMeasles casescases roserose 300 percentpercent worldwideworldwide throughthrough thethe firstfirst threethree monthsmonths ofof 2019 comparedcompared toto thethe samesame periodperiod lastlast year,year, thethe UNUN saidsaid Monday,Monday, asas concernconcern growsgrows overover thethe impactimpact ofof anti-vaccination stigma.stigma.

Measles,Measles, whichwhich isis highlyhighly contagious,contagious, cancan bebe entirelyentirely preventedprevented throughthrough aa two-dose vaccine,vaccine, butbut thethe WorldWorld HealthHealth OrganizationOrganization (WHO)(WHO) hashas inin recentrecent monthsmonths soundedsounded thethe alarmalarm overover slippingslipping globalglobal vaccination rates.rates.

"Preliminary"Preliminary globalglobal datadata showsshows thatthat reportedreported casescases roserose byby 300 percentpercent inin thethe firstfirst threethree monthsmonths ofof 2019, comparedcompared toto thethe samesame periodperiod inin 2018. ThisThis followsfollows consecutiveconsecutive increasesincreases overover thethe pastpast twotwo years,"years," itit saidsaid inin aa statement.statement.

"While"While thisthis datadata isis provisionalprovisional andand notnot yetyet complete,complete, itit indicatesindicates aa clearclear trend.trend. ManyMany countriescountries areare inin thethe midstmidst ofof sizeablesizeable measlesmeasles outbreaks,outbreaks, withwith allall regionsregions ofof thethe worldworld experiencingexperiencing sustainedsustained risesrises inin cases,"cases," WHOWHO furtherfurther said.said.

TheThe agencyagency notednoted thatthat onlyonly aboutabout oneone inin 10 actualactual measlesmeasles casescases areare reported,reported, meaningmeaning thethe earlyearly trendstrends forfor 2019 likelylikely underestimateunderestimate thethe severity ofof thethe outbreaks.outbreaks.

SoSo farfar thisthis year,year, 170 countriescountries havehave reportedreported 112,163 measlesmeasles casescases toto WHO.WHO. AtAt thisthis timetime lastlast year,year, 163 countriescountries hadhad reportedreported 28,124 cases.cases.

"Spikes"Spikes inin casecase numbersnumbers havehave alsoalso occurredoccurred inin countriescountries withwith highhigh overalloverall vaccination coverage,coverage, includingincluding thethe UnitedUnited States,"States," WHOWHO said.said.

"The"The diseasedisease hashas spreadspread fastfast amongamong clustersclusters ofof unvaccinated people,"people," itit added.added.

NewNew York's mayormayor declareddeclared aa publicpublic healthhealth emergencyemergency inin partsparts ofof Brooklyn lastlast week,week, afterafter aa measlesmeasles outbreakoutbreak emergedemerged inin anan ultra-Orthodox JewishJewish community,community, wherewhere somesome hadhad resistedresisted vaccination onon religiousreligious grounds.grounds.

WHOWHO saidsaid thatthat thethe mostmost dramaticdramatic riserise inin casescases -- aa 700-percent increaseincrease comparedcompared toto lastlast yearyear -- hashas beenbeen reportedreported inin Africa, whichwhich hashas weakerweaker vaccination coveragecoverage thanthan otherother regions.regions.

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'First' 3D print of heart with human tissue, vessels unveiled


2019-04-15
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ScientistsScientists inin Israel unveiledunveiled aa 3D printprint ofof aa heartheart withwith humanhuman tissuetissue andand vesselsvessels onon Monday,Monday, callingcalling itit aa firstfirst andand aa "major"major medicalmedical breakthrough"breakthrough" thatthat advancesadvances possibilitiespossibilities forfor transplants.transplants.

WhileWhile itit remainsremains aa farfar wayway off,off, scientistsscientists hopehope oneone dayday toto bebe ableable toto produceproduce heartshearts suitablesuitable forfor transplanttransplant intointo humanshumans asas wellwell asas patchespatches toto regenerateregenerate defectivedefective hearts.hearts.

TheThe heartheart producedproduced byby researchersresearchers atat TelTel Aviv UniversityUniversity isis aboutabout thethe sizesize ofof aa rabbit's.rabbit's.

ItIt markedmarked "the"the firstfirst timetime anyoneanyone anywhereanywhere hashas successfully engineeredengineered andand printedprinted anan entireentire heartheart repletereplete withwith cells,cells, bloodblood vessels,vessels, ventriclesventricles andand chambers,"chambers," saidsaid Tal Dvir, whowho ledled thethe project.project.

"People"People havehave managedmanaged toto 3D-print thethe structurestructure ofof aa heartheart inin thethe past,past, butbut notnot withwith cellscells oror withwith bloodblood vessels,"vessels," hehe said.said.

ButBut thethe scientistsscientists saidsaid manymany challengeschallenges remainremain beforebefore fullyfully workingworking 3D printedprinted heartshearts wouldwould bebe availableavailable forfor transplanttransplant intointo patients.patients.

JournalistsJournalists werewere shownshown aa 3D printprint ofof aa heartheart aboutabout thethe sizesize ofof aa cherry,cherry, immersedimmersed inin liquid,liquid, atat TelTel Aviv UniversityUniversity onon MondayMonday asas thethe researchersresearchers announcedannounced theirtheir findings,findings, publishedpublished inin thethe peer-reviewed journaljournal AdvancedAdvanced Science.Science.

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ResearchersResearchers mustmust nownow teachteach thethe printedprinted heartshearts "to"to behave"behave" likelike realreal ones.ones. TheThe cellscells areare currently ableable toto contract,contract, butbut dodo notnot yetyet havehave thethe abilityability toto pump.pump.

ThenThen theythey planplan toto transplanttransplant themthem intointo animalanimal models,models, hopefullyhopefully inin aboutabout aa year,year, saidsaid Dvir.

"Maybe,"Maybe, inin 10 years,years, therethere willwill bebe organorgan printersprinters inin thethe finestfinest hospitalshospitals aroundaround thethe world,world, andand thesethese proceduresprocedures willwill bebe conductedconducted routinely,"routinely," hehe said.said.

ButBut hehe saidsaid hospitalshospitals wouldwould likelylikely startstart withwith simplersimpler organsorgans thanthan hearts.hearts.

- ProducingProducing 'ink''ink' -

InIn itsits statementstatement announcingannouncing thethe research,research, TelTel Aviv UniversityUniversity calledcalled itit aa "major"major medicalmedical breakthrough".breakthrough".

CardiovascularCardiovascular diseasedisease isis thethe world'sworld's leadingleading causecause ofof death,death, accordingaccording toto thethe WorldWorld HealthHealth Organization,Organization, andand transplantstransplants areare currently thethe onlyonly optionoption availableavailable forfor patientspatients inin thethe worstworst cases.cases.

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ButBut thethe numbernumber ofof donorsdonors isis limitedlimited andand manymany diedie whilewhile waiting.waiting.

WhenWhen theythey dodo benefit,benefit, theythey cancan fallfall victimvictim toto theirtheir bodiesbodies rejectingrejecting thethe transplanttransplant -- aa problemproblem thethe researchersresearchers areare seekingseeking toto overcome.overcome.

TheirTheir researchresearch involvedinvolved takingtaking aa biopsybiopsy ofof fattyfatty tissuetissue fromfrom patientspatients thatthat waswas usedused inin thethe developmentdevelopment ofof thethe "ink""ink" forfor thethe 3D print.print.

First,First, patient-specific cardiaccardiac patchespatches werewere createdcreated followedfollowed byby thethe entireentire heart,heart, thethe statementstatement said.said.

UsingUsing thethe patient'spatient's ownown tissuetissue waswas importantimportant toto eliminateeliminate thethe riskrisk ofof anan implantimplant provokingprovoking anan immuneimmune responseresponse andand beingbeing rejected,rejected, Dvir said.said.

"The"The biocompatibility ofof engineeredengineered materialsmaterials isis crucialcrucial toto eliminatingeliminating thethe riskrisk ofof implantimplant rejection, whichwhich jeopardises thethe successsuccess ofof suchsuch treatments,"treatments," saidsaid Dvir.

ChallengesChallenges thatthat remainremain includeinclude howhow toto expandexpand thethe cellscells toto havehave enoughenough tissuetissue toto recreaterecreate aa human-sized heart,heart, hehe said.said.

CurrentCurrent 3D printersprinters areare alsoalso limitedlimited byby thethe sizesize ofof theirtheir resolutionresolution andand anotheranother challengechallenge willwill bebe figuringfiguring outout howhow toto printprint allall smallsmall bloodblood vessels.vessels.

ButBut whilewhile thethe currentcurrent 3D printprint waswas aa primitiveprimitive oneone andand onlyonly thethe sizesize ofof aa rabbit'srabbit's heart,heart, "larger"larger humanhuman heartshearts requirerequire thethe samesame technology,"technology," saidsaid Dvir.

3D printingprinting hashas openedopened upup possibilitiespossibilities inin numerousnumerous fields,fields, provokingprovoking bothboth promisepromise andand controversy.controversy.

TheThe technologytechnology hashas developeddeveloped toto includeinclude 3D printsprints ofof everythingeverything fromfrom homeshomes toto guns.guns.

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Ebola death toll in DRC passes 750: WHO


2019-04-12
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TheThe Ebola outbreakoutbreak inin thethe DemocraticDemocratic RepublicRepublic ofof Congo hashas killedkilled moremore thanthan 750 people,people, thethe WorldWorld HealthHealth OrganizationOrganization (WHO)(WHO) saidsaid Friday,Friday, aheadahead ofof aa keykey reviewreview onon thethe severity ofof thethe epidemic.epidemic.

WHO'sWHO's latestlatest tolltoll forfor thethe outbreakoutbreak declareddeclared inin easterneastern DRC lastlast AugustAugust camecame asas thethe agency'sagency's InternationalInternational HealthHealth RegulationsRegulations emergencyemergency committeecommittee waswas meetingmeeting inin Geneva.

InIn OctoberOctober thatthat committeecommittee heldheld offoff declaringdeclaring Ebola inin DRC "a"a publicpublic healthhealth emergencyemergency ofof internationalinternational concern,"concern," butbut hashas decideddecided toto reviewreview thethe situationsituation amidamid aa seriesseries ofof worryingworrying developments.developments.

AsAs ofof AprilApril 9, nearlynearly 1,200 casescases ofof thethe virusvirus havehave beenbeen reportedreported inin thethe affectedaffected provincesprovinces ofof NorthNorth Kivu andand Ituri, withwith 751 peoplepeople dead,dead, thethe WHOWHO said.said.

TheThe RedRed CrossCross hashas saidsaid thatthat transmissiontransmission isis acceleratingaccelerating whilewhile DoctorsDoctors WithoutWithout BordersBorders (MSF) hashas warnedwarned thatthat thethe internationalinternational responseresponse isis failingfailing toto bringbring thethe epidemicepidemic underunder control.control.

PoorPoor securitysecurity owingowing toto thethe presencepresence ofof armedarmed groups,groups, coupledcoupled withwith resistanceresistance ofof somesome communitiescommunities toto seekingseeking treatment,treatment, hashas hamperedhampered thethe fightfight toto stemstem thethe spreadspread ofof thethe disease.disease.

WHOWHO spokesmanspokesman Tarik Jasarevic toldtold reportersreporters inin Geneva onon FridayFriday thatthat securitysecurity concerns,concerns, includingincluding recentrecent attacksattacks onon healthhealth facilities,facilities, hashas mademade itit impossibleimpossible toto maintainmaintain aa sustainedsustained response.response.

WhenWhen healthhealth workersworkers areare unableunable toto getget toto communitiescommunities becausebecause ofof unrest,unrest, "no"no peoplepeople areare beingbeing vaccinated,vaccinated, therethere isis nono treatmenttreatment (and)(and) peoplepeople areare stayingstaying atat homehome andand infectinginfecting otherother people."people."

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"Now"Now wewe seesee thatthat wewe areare regainingregaining thatthat accessaccess andand itit isis normalnormal whenwhen youyou startstart regainingregaining thatthat accessaccess thatthat youyou startstart seeingseeing thosethose casescases thatthat youyou havehave notnot seenseen whenwhen youyou didn't havehave access,access, andand thatthat partiallypartially explainsexplains thethe riserise inin numbers,"numbers," hehe said.said.

WHOWHO considersconsiders definesdefines aa publicpublic healthhealth emergencyemergency ofof internationalinternational concernconcern asas "an"an extraordinaryextraordinary event"event" thatthat posesposes risksrisks toto multiplemultiple statesstates andand requiresrequires "a"a coordinated internationalinternational response."response."

ThisThis isis DRC's 10th outbreakoutbreak ofof Ebola inin 40 yearsyears andand isis thethe secondsecond worstworst toto date.date.

TheThe deadliestdeadliest waswas aa 2014 epidemicepidemic inin WestWest Africa whichwhich killedkilled moremore thanthan 10,000 peoplepeople inin Guinea,Guinea, Liberia andand Sierra Leone.